Surrealism - the beauty of surreal worlds
Surrealism - (from French Surrealisme) - direction in the avant-garde art of the first half of the twentieth century, characterized by the fusion of reality with something else, but not opposite. Surrealism is a dream - it is not real, as well as not surreal. The style is characterized by allusions and a paradoxical combination of forms, visual deception. Solid objects are often on the canvases of the Surrealists, the stones spread, and the water on the contrary - stony.
Surrealism as an expression of non-traditional, subjective views always existed in the visual arts. Dutch painter of the fantastic world Hieronymus Bosch, English artist-visionary and poet William Blake, German painter Caspar David Friedrich with his strange, mysterious landscapes - all of them were tireless researchers of the surreal worlds.
Surrealism as art school in fine arts appeared in Paris in 1924. Andre Breton, a student-psychiatric at that time, believed that a viable art could be revived by releasing the subconscious. In his workroom at Ryu-Fontaine, where artists and writers gathered, the first surrealist manifesto was written, followed by the first surrealist newspaper called “Surrealist Revolution”. Those who joined the movement, including Max Ernst and Andre Masson, were of the opinion that traditional Western culture has nothing to offer to the world and that a complete break with this culture is necessary. To achieve this, it was necessary to cut the cultural umbilical cord that connects the present with the past, and look for new ideas in the subconscious world that Freud, Jung and other psychologists tried to penetrate.
However, the surrealists were not the first who wanted to free art from the chains of ancient culture, it was chained in. A few years before, the Dadaists (from French “clacla” fad, favorite theme) set themselves a goal to destroy the art of the past and create a new one, without traditions. They wanted so much to end the past that the viewers, visiting their exhibitions were given axes to express their inclinations. Together with Tristan Tzara and Francis Picabia, Breton was also a Dadaist in his time, however, realizing that the Dadaist destructiveness will not last long without positive pathos, he moved away from Dadaism and put forward the concept of surrealism.
Surrealism, according to Breton, is a means of complete releasing of the mind and imagination.
In order to free the subconscious, Breton used the technique of automatic writing, fixing on paper the first thing that came to his mind, and completely disregarding the auto censure. Artists, in its turn, took a note of the technique of automatic drawing; some painted and wrote in the shadows or created works from all sorts of trash. Having set a goal to establish their principles in practice, the surrealists superseded the Dadaists quickly and began to demonstrate new art. At the first exhibition of surrealists held in 1925 in Galerie-Pierre in Paris, such different masters like Giorgio de Chirico, Paul Klee, Jean (Hans) Arp, Ernst, Man Ray, Joan Miró and Pablo Picasso took part in. A variety of creative manners immediately showed that, in contrast to the movement of impressionists half a century ago, the surrealists represent themselves a group of very eclectic people, without a single pictorial style; the only one thing united all these artists - the desire for the subconscious.
Au Rendez-vous des amis
Breton, the thinker of the leftist orientation, also strove for the new art to be accessible to everyone, not just the creative elite, educated, and privileged classes. Many surrealists were, however, representatives of the intellectual elite and their oeuvre, for example, the works by Vasily Kandinsky, Miro and Yves Tanguy, were very esoteric; Moreover, they were not much interested in the social side of surrealism.
Mama, Papa is Wounded!
In the 1930s, some Surrealists followed him and began to depict household utensils on their canvases, although these items were sometimes distorted or placed in unusual conditions. The most prominent masters of this kind of surrealism were Paul Delvaux, Salvador Dali and Rene Magritte. The visual accessibility of their oeuvre - often, however, only visible - allowed surrealism to get wider access to the viewer and gain world recognition through fashion, commercial art and the media, it means thereby making Breton's dreams come true.
During his lifetime, Dali bequeathed to bury him so that people could walk around the grave. There are a lot of interesting facts about eccentricity of Surrealists.
The real art is seen by surrealists in the rejection of their own conscious thought, because the idea is subjective, and art should be on the contrary - objective. This is exactly the subconscious - a dream. Sleeping is the continuation of reality, the objective one, which is not imposed by certain ideas of consciousness and is not constrained by the Super-Ego or the so-called censorship of consciousness.
Dona i cap d’home
The dream for the Surrealists is somewhat a revelation. It is worth remembering Salvador Dali, who started working immediately after awakening, when the mind was not completely freed from the images of the subconscious. Sometimes he even woke up in the middle of the night for the same purpose. This method corresponds to one of the methods of psychoanalysis - the recording of dreams immediately after awakening. It is considered that over time, consciousness dulls, distorts, and transforms images from the dream.
Portrait of woman in d`hermine pass (Olga)
Pegaso de Sol